Examining the “Triple Challenge” in offshore wind farms in the UK

Lydia Anderlini
2 minutes read























My name is Lydia Anderlini and I just finished my integrated masters degree at Oxford, finishing with a Master’s project with ICCS, supervised by Prof. EJ Milner-Gulland and Dr. Hollie Booth. I am now working as a Civil Servant in the Cabinet Office hoping to eventually work on biodiversity, food, and climate policy.
My project focused on examining the “Triple Challenge” in offshore wind farms in the UK. The triple challenge is the challenge of addressing climate and biodiversity goals while maintaining human well-being and ensuring that solutions to the climate and biodiversity crisis are equitable.

I interviewed a series of offshore wind farm industry experts, policy makers, fishermen, and ecologists to see what perceptions they had about the expanding offshore wind industry in the UK. I used these interviews to inform policy recommendations, summarised here.

The project was a very interesting experience for me to look at what is generally considered to be a good thing (green energy) through the lens of the people and environments it may affect negatively in the short term.

Green energy is continuously growing and improving, and will be a key way that we are able to address the climate crisis, but the immediate effects are not always considered. The future of green energy will be impacted by politics, economics, and technological advances, and will be impossible to predict. This project showed me that as green energy technologies change and improve, the people and places they affect need to be considered and addressed in a consistent and equitable way.

The full thesis is linked here and the policy report is linked here.


Lydia Anderlini | MBiol
I have been really interested in conservation and specifically aquatic/marine conservation for a long time. I started scuba diving with my mom quite young and really fell in love with the ocean. In 2019 this led me to get my divemaster certification and work as a guide on the island of Bonaire. I was involved in a lot of cleanup projects, lionfish culls, and educational tours for tourists visiting the island, and I learned about the MPA surrounding much of the island. Living on Bonaire really cemented my interests in marine biology and made me see the impacts that proper conservation can have on local communities.

I grew up in DC and was always surrounded by politics. In high school I began to get involved in protests and climate activism, and I was really excited to see the modules here at oxford that talked about the practicalities of implementing conservation policies, and the considerations that go into those policies. I am excited to start work with ICCS and really dive into the human side of conservation.