Joe W. Bull
School of Anthropology and Conservation,
Marlowe Building, The University of Kent,
Canterbury, Kent, CT2 7NR,
T: +44 (0)1227 827056
My overall research interest lies in exploring, at the landscape scale, which components of biodiversity are the most crucial to protect and restore – given that ecosystems are dynamic, uncertain and subject to change. To do so, I work with simulation models and algorithms, large secondary (and occasionally primary) data sets, and spatial analysis of data including satellite imagery.
I have a particular interest in investigating the impacts of the private sector upon global biodiversity, and investigating mechanisms through which business can manage impacts and fund conservation and restoration activities.
Moving ecological targets and dynamic conservation interventions
Biodiversity offsets, and their role in achieving ‘no net loss’ of biodiversity alongside development
Evaluating the effectiveness of conservation interventions under change scenarios, including development of useful baselines or counterfactuals (‘frames of reference’)
Business and corporate biodiversity strategy
Restoration and rewilding
Quantum biology and ecology
2017- current Lecturer in Conservation Science at DICE, University of Kent
2015 – 2017 Marie Skłodowska-Curie postdoctoral fellow, University of Copenhagen
2015 – current Visiting Researcher, University of Oxford
2014 – 2015 Visiting Researcher, Imperial College London
2012 – current Director and co-founder, Wild Business Ltd
2012 – 2014 International Consultant, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
2011 – 2011 Researcher, CEED, RMIT University (Australia)
2010 – 2014 PhD candidate, Imperial College London/FFI
2009 – 2010 Research associate, WildCRU, University of Oxford
2006 – 2010 Environmental consultant, Bureau Veritas
2005 – 2006 MSc Environmental Technology, Imperial College London
2002 – 2005 BSc Physics, Imperial College London
Maron, M., Brownlie, S., Bull, J.W., et al. (in press) The many meanings of No Net Loss in environmental policy. Nature Sustainability.
EJ Milner-Gulland, V Griffiths, O Sheremet, N Hanley, J Baker, J Bull. Local people's preferences for biodiversity offsets to achieve ‘no net loss’ for economic developments. Biological Conservation 2019
PFE Addison, JW Bull, EJ Milner‐Gulland. Using conservation science to advance corporate biodiversity accountability. Conservation Biology 33 (2), 307-318, 6, 2019
VF Griffiths, JW Bull, J Baker, EJ Milner‐Gulland. No net loss for people and biodiversity. Conservation Biology 33 (1), 76-87, 7, 2019
JW Bull, R Ejrnæs, DW Macdonald, JC Svenning, CJ Sandom. Fences can support restoration in human‐dominated ecosystems when rewilding with large predators. Restoration Ecology 27 (1), 198-209, 5, 2019
JW Bull, N Strange. The global extent of biodiversity offset implementation under no net loss policie. Nature Sustainability 1 (12), 790, 3, 2018
JW Bull, J Baker, VF Griffiths, JPG Jones, EJ Milner-Gulland. Ensuring No Net Loss for people as well as biodiversity: good practice principles. SocArXiv, 2018
P Addison, JW Bull. Conservation accord: Corporate incentives. Science, 2, 2018
EJ Milner‐Gulland, S Garcia, W Arlidge, J Bull, A Charles, L Dagorn. Translating the terrestrial mitigation hierarchy to marine megafauna by‐catch. Fish and fisheries 19 (3), 547-561, 3, 2018
WNS Arlidge, JW Bull, PFE Addison, MJ Burgass, D Gianuca, TM Gorham. A global mitigation hierarchy for nature conservation. BioScience 68 (5), 336-347Bull et al. (2017) “Data transparency regarding the implementation of European ‘no net loss’ biodiversity policies” Biological Conservation
Bull, J.W., Abatayo, A., Strange, N. (in press) "Counterintuitive Proposals for Trans-boundary Ecological Compensation Under ‘No Net Loss’ Biodiversity Policy" Ecological Economics.
Bull, J.W., Strange, N. (2017) Demonstrating biodiversity offset policy outcomes using the classic “Trading in a Pit Market” classroom game. Vestnik of the Tyumen State University, 3(1). (pdf)
Bull, J.W., Lloyd, S.P., Strange, N. (2017) Implementation gap between the theory and practice of biodiversity offset multipliers. Conservation Letters, DOI: 10.1111/conl.12335
Real, R., Barbosa, A.M. & Bull, J.W. “Species distributions, quantum theory, and the enhancement of biodiversity measures”. Systematic Biology (pdf)
Keith, S.A. & Bull, J.W. “Animal culture impacts species’ capacity to realise climate-driven range shifts”. Ecography (pdf)
Bull, J.W., Maron, M. (2016) “How humans drive speciation as well as extinction”. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. DOI:10.1098/rspb.2016.0600.
Bull, J.W., Gordon, A., Watson, J.E.M., Maron, M. (2016) “Seeking convergence on key concepts in No Net Loss policy”. Journal of Applied Ecology. DOI:10.1111/1365-2664.12726.
Maron, M., Ives, C., Kujala, H., Bull, J.W., et al. (2016) “Taming a wicked problem: resolving controversies in biodiversity offsetting”. BioScience, DOI:10.1093/biosci/biw038.
Bull, J.W., Jobstvogt, N., Böhnke-Henrichs, A., Mascarenhas, A., Sitas, N., Baulcomb, C., et al. (2016) “Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats: a SWOT analysis of the ecosystem services framework”. Ecosystem Services, 17: 99–111.
Bull, J.W., Brownlie, S. (2015) “The transition from No Net Loss to a Net Gain of biodiversity is far from trivial”. Oryx. DOI:10.1017/S0030605315000861.
Bull, J.W., Hardy, M.J., Moilanen, A., Gordon, A. (2015) “Categories of flexibility in biodiversity offsetting, and the implications of out-of-kind ecological compensation”. Biological Conservation. DOI:10.1016/j.biocon.2015.08.003.
Bull, J.W., Singh N.J., Suttle K.B., Bykova E.A., Milner-Gulland E.J. (2015) “Creating a frame of reference for conservation interventions”. Land Use Policy, 49: 273–286. DOI:10.1016/j.landusepol.2015.08.005.
Bull, J.W., Gordon, A. (2015) “Schrödinger’s microbe: implications of coercing a living organism into a coherent quantum mechanical state”. Biology and Philosophy, DOI: 10.1007/s10539-015-9500-4.
Maron, M., Bull, J.W., Evans, M.C., Gordon, A. (2015) “Locking in loss: baselines of decline in Australian biodiversity offset policies”. Biological Conservation, DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2015.05.017
Bull, J.W. (2015) “Quantum conservation biology: a new ecological tool”. Conservation Letters, 8(4): 227–229. DOI: 10.1111/conl.12195
Gordon, A., Bull, J.W., Wilcox, C., Maron, M. (2015) “Perverse incentives risk undermining biodiversity offset policies”. Journal of Applied Ecology, 52: 532–537. DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12398.
Bull, J.W., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Suttle, K.B., Singh N.J. (2014) “Comparing biodiversity offset calculation methods with a case study in Uzbekistan”. Biological Conservation, 178: 2–10.
Bull, J.W., Gordon, A., Law, E., Suttle, K.B., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2014) “The importance of baseline specification in evaluating conservation interventions and achieving no net loss of biodiversity”. Conservation Biology, 28(3): 799–809.
Jones, I.L.*, Bull J.W.*, Milner-Gulland, E.J., Esipov A.V., Suttle, K.B. (2014) “Quantifying habitat impacts of natural gas infrastructure to facilitate biodiversity offsetting”. Ecology and Evolution, 4(1): 79-90. (*shared lead authorship).
Bull, J.W., Suttle, K.B., Gordon, A., Singh, N.J., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2013) “Biodiversity offsets in theory and practice”. Oryx, 47(3): 369-380.
Bull, J.W., Suttle, K.B., Singh, N.J., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2013) “Conservation when nothing stands still: moving targets and biodiversity offsets”. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 11(4): 203-210.
Sandom, C., Bull, J.W., Canney, S., Macdonald, D.W. (2012) “Exploring the Value of Wolves (Canis lupus) in Landscape-Scale Fenced Reserves for Ecological Restoration in the Scottish Highlands”. In: M. Hayward & M. Somers (eds) Fencing for Conservation. Springer
Bull, J.W., Nilsen, E., Mysterud, A., Milner-Gulland, E.J., (2009) “Survival on the Border: a population model to evaluate management options for Norway’s wolves Canis lupus”. Wildlife Biology, 15: 412-424.
Notable reports and articles not subject to peer review
Bull, J.W., Bryant, C., Baker, J., Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2015) “Developing, measuring and communicating the outcomes of corporate biodiversity strategies”. London, UK; Wild Business Ltd.
Bull, J.W. (2015) “Comparing biodiversity offset methodologies”. Decision Point, 85:6-7
Bennun, L.A., Ekstrom, J., Bull, J.W. (2014) “Integrating the value of natural capital into private and public investment: the role of information”. The Biodiversity Consultancy; Cambridge, UK
Bull, J.W. (2014) “Biodiversity offsets use in the UK: how, where and when?” ECOS, 34(3/4): 3-7.
Bull, J.W. (2013) “Here comes the wild world”. Wellcome Trust [available at: www.wellcome.ac.uk].
Bull, J.W. & Esipov, A.V. (2013) “Ancient techniques for hunting saigas in Ustyurt: the remains of arrans”. Saiga News, 16: 18-19.
Bull, J.W. (2013) “Tackling the moving target problem”. Decision Point, 71:6-7.
Sophus zu Ermgassen 'Effectiveness of No Net Loss policies and biodiversity offsets';
Diego Juffe-Bignoli 'Biodiversity impacts of development corridors'
Victoria Griffiths (current), PhD, Imperial College London.
Hannah Hamilton (current), PhD, Trinity College Dublin.
I have supervised numerous BSc, MSc and MRes projects