Tom Clements

tclements@wcs.org

Wildlife Conservation Society
2300 Southern Boulevard
Bronx
NY 10460
USA

 

My principal research interest concerns how incentives for environmental conservation operate and affect human behaviour across multiple scales and different institutional arrangements. Over the past 10 years I have worked on the design, implementation and evaluation of conservation and development projects throughout Southeast Asia, including community conservation, Payments for Environmental Services (PES) type mechanisms, land reform and protected area management, mainly for the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS).

My experience has taught me that there are no panaceas in conservation and development, and that achieving locally-appropriate solutions requires an in-depth understanding of how incentives, motivations and politics operate across multiple scales. My research focuses on understanding the impacts of conservation and development projects, and how project design affects the behaviour of local people, government institutions, and organisations (Clements et al. 2010 Ecological Economics). This includes application of rigorous impact evaluation methods (Ferraro and Pattanayak, 2006, PLoS Biology 4:e105) to investigate both environmental and social outcomes of conservation interventions (Clements et al. 2014 World Development; Clements & Milner-Gulland, under review). I use a combination of quantitative and qualitative tools to then understand the changes in local attitudes, behaviour and institutions that led to the observed outcomes (Clements et al. 2013 Biological Conservation). Finally, we have used behavioural economic games to investigate how people respond to different environmental policies (Travers et al. 2011 Ecological Economics).

I work for WCS’s Global Conservation Program, focusing on forest and conservation policy in Southeast Asia. In particular, I have worked in Cambodia for the past nine years and advise the Government institutions on the design of the National REDD+ Programme. REDD stands for ‘Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation’ and the ‘+’ incorporates conservation of existing forest carbon stocks, sustainable forest management and activities to enhance forest carbon stocks through, for example, reforestation. Payments and positive incentives to governments and communities to achieve REDD+ are likely to be an important element of future agreements to mitigate global climate change, and may significantly alter incentives for tropical forest conservation (Clements 2010 Oryx). I also advise on the design and implementation of community conservation initiatives.

 

2012-onwards. Director, Wildlife Conservation Society – Cambodia Program. Responsible for management of the Cambodia Country Program for WCS.

2008-2012. Research and Policy Advisor, Wildlife Conservation Society – Global Conservation Program. Responsible for development of Payments for Environmental Services (PES) programs, including ecotourism, certified products and reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) in Southeast Asia. Project developer for forest carbon projects in Cambodia. Design of new programmes on REDD and PES in Lao PDR and Papua New Guinea.

2008-2011. Advisor on the development of the National REDD+ Programme in Cambodia, including attending UNFCCC negotiations on REDD+; facilitating the development of the Cambodia REDD+ readiness plan, including public consultation and validation by all in-country stakeholders; facilitating the preparation of the Cambodia UN-REDD National Programme ($4.4 million) and the Cambodia Readiness Preparation Proposal (R-PP) for the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) ($3.6 million); advising and coordinating with development partners: Danida, EC, FAO, JICA, UNDP, USAID, World Bank.

2002-2008. Technical Advisor, Wildlife Conservation Society – Cambodia Program. Designed and managed a 7-year full-size UNDP-GEF project aiming to establish effective models of conservation across the Northern Plains landscape of Cambodia. Development of pilot models for community conservation, Payments for Environmental Services (PES), eco-tourism and establishment of two protected areas. Manager of conservation and development project grants for DFID (fisheries), DFID/Danida/NZAID (natural resource management), World Bank. Established species conservation programmes for large waterbirds, vultures, tigers and elephants. Development of biological monitoring programmes for three large landscapes in Cambodia, covering four protected areas. Member of WCS’s International Conservation Program Strategic Planning Team.

2000-2001. Researcher at Oxford Forestry Institute, Department of Plant Sciences, Oxford University. Forestry Research in the Brazilian Amazon, The Philippines and the UK.

1997-2000. BA (Hons) Biological Sciences, Oxford University. 1st Class. Undergraduate research project on mahogany in the Brazilian Amazon.

 

2012-onwards. Director, Wildlife Conservation Society – Cambodia Program. Responsible for management of the Cambodia Country Program for WCS.

2008-2012. Research and Policy Advisor, Wildlife Conservation Society – Global Conservation Program. Responsible for development of Payments for Environmental Services (PES) programs, including ecotourism, certified products and reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) in Southeast Asia. Project developer for forest carbon projects in Cambodia. Design of new programmes on REDD and PES in Lao PDR and Papua New Guinea.

2008-2011. Advisor on the development of the National REDD+ Programme in Cambodia, including attending UNFCCC negotiations on REDD+; facilitating the development of the Cambodia REDD+ readiness plan, including public consultation and validation by all in-country stakeholders; facilitating the preparation of the Cambodia UN-REDD National Programme ($4.4 million) and the Cambodia Readiness Preparation Proposal (R-PP) for the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) ($3.6 million); advising and coordinating with development partners: Danida, EC, FAO, JICA, UNDP, USAID, World Bank.

2002-2008. Technical Advisor, Wildlife Conservation Society – Cambodia Program. Designed and managed a 7-year full-size UNDP-GEF project aiming to establish effective models of conservation across the Northern Plains landscape of Cambodia. Development of pilot models for community conservation, Payments for Environmental Services (PES), eco-tourism and establishment of two protected areas. Manager of conservation and development project grants for DFID (fisheries), DFID/Danida/NZAID (natural resource management), World Bank. Established species conservation programmes for large waterbirds, vultures, tigers and elephants. Development of biological monitoring programmes for three large landscapes in Cambodia, covering four protected areas. Member of WCS’s International Conservation Program Strategic Planning Team.

2000-2001. Researcher at Oxford Forestry Institute, Department of Plant Sciences, Oxford University. Forestry Research in the Brazilian Amazon, The Philippines and the UK.

1997-2000. BA (Hons) Biological Sciences, Oxford University. 1st Class. Undergraduate research project on mahogany in the Brazilian Amazon.

Clements, T. and Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2014) The impact of Payments for Environmental Services and Protected Areas on local livelihoods and forest conservation in Northern Cambodia. under review.

Clements, T., Suon, S., An, D., Wilkie, D.S. and Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2014) Impacts of Protected Areas on local livelihoods in Cambodia. World Development, in press(PDF online)

Milner-Gulland, E.J., McGregor, J.A., Agarwala, M., Atkinson, G., Bevan, P., Clements, T., et al. (2014) Accounting for the impact of conservation on human well-being. Conservation Biology, in press. (PDF online)

Ingram, J.C., Wilkie, D.S., Clements, T., et al. (2014) Evidence of Payments for Environmental Services as a mechanism for supporting biodiversity conservation and rural livelihoods. Ecosystem Services,  in press. (PDF online)

Clements, T., Rainey, H.J., An, D., Rours, V., Tan, S., Thong, S., Sutherland, W.J. and Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2013). An evaluation of the effectiveness of a direct payment for biodiversity conservation: the Bird Nest Protection Program in the Northern Plains of Cambodia. Biological Conservation, 157, 50-59. (PDF online)

O’Kelly, H., Evans, T., Stokes, E., An, D., Clements, T., et al. (2013). Identifying conservation successes, failures and future opportunities; assessing recovery potential of wild ungulates and tigers in eastern Cambodia. PLoS ONE, 7(10): e40482. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0040482. (free online access)

Clements, T., Gilbert, M., Rainey, H.J., Cuthbert, R., Eames, J.C., Pech, B., Seng, T., Song, C. and Tan, S. (2013). Vultures in Cambodia: population, threats and conservation. Bird Conservation International, 23(1), 7-24. (PDF online)

Gardner, T.A., Burgess, N.D., Aguiar-Amuschastegui, N., Barlow, J., Berenguer, E., Clements, T., et al. (2012). A framework for integrating biodiversity concerns into national REDD+ programmes. Biological Conservation, 154, 61-71. Distributed as an official Information Document in English, French and Spanish to parties of the Convention on Biological Diversity. (free online access)

Evans, T., Arpels, M. and Clements, T. (2012). Pilot REDD Activities in Cambodia are Expected to Improve Access to Forest Resource Use Rights and Land Tenure for Local Communities. pp 73-82. In: Naughton-Treves, L. and Day, C. (eds) Lessons about Land Tenure, Forest Governance and REDD+. Case Studies from Africa, Asia and Latin America. Madison, Wisconsin: UW-Madison Land Tenure Center. (PDF online)

Travers, H., Clements, T., Keane, A. and Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2011). Incentives for Cooperation: the effects of institutional controls on common pool resource extraction in Cambodia. Ecological Economics, 71, 151-161. (online)

Clements, T. (2010). Reduced Expectations: the political and institutional challenges of REDD+. Oryx, 44, 309-310. (invited editorial, free online access).

Clements, T., John, A., Nielsen, K., An, D., Tan, S. and Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2010). Direct payments for biodiversity conservation: comparison of three schemes from Cambodia. Ecological Economics, 69, 1283-1291. (online)

Nicholson, E., et al. (2009). Priority research areas for ecosystem services in a changing world. Journal of Applied Ecology, 46, 1139-1144. (free online access)

Rawson, B.M., Clements, T. and Hor, N.M. (2008). Status and Conservation of Yellow-cheeked Crested Gibbons (Nomascus gabriellae) in Seima Biodiversity Conservation Area, Mondulkiri Province, Cambodia. pp 387-408. In: Lappan, S., Whittaker, D. and Geissmann, T. (eds) The Gibbons: new perspectives on small ape socioecology and population biology. (online)

McShea, W.J., Koy, K., Clements, T., Johnson, A., Vongkhamheng, C. and Aung, M. (2005). Finding a needle in the haystack: Regional analysis of suitable Eld’s deer (Cervus eldi) habitat in Southeast Asia. Biological Conservation, 125, 101-111. (online)

Bailey, N., Clements, T., Lee, J.T. and Thompson, S. (2003). Modelling soil series data to facilitate targeted habitat restoration: a polytomous logistic regression approach. Journal of Environmental Management, 67, 395-407. (online)

Brown, N.D., Jennings, S.B. and Clements, T. (2003). The ecology, silviculture and biogeography of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla): a critical review of the evidence. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 6, 37-49. (online)

 

REDD+: “REDD+: Demonstration Projects and Development of National Policies”. Multiple presentations to:

  • Governments of Myanmar (2013), Lao PDR (2009-2010), Cambodia (2009-2013).
  • Lecture, Imperial College Masters Course, London, UK. 2009, 2010 and 2011.
  • German Government (BMU/GTZ/KfW) seminar. Vilm, Germany. 2009.
  • Designed and led a 3-day training course on REDD+ for the WCS Asia Program. 2009.

PES: “Designing PES programs for multiple outcomes”. Multiple presentations at:

  • USAID seminars, Washington D.C., USA and RDMA, Bangkok. 2010 and 2012.
  • Lecture, Imperial College Masters Course, London, UK. 2012.
  • Katoomba Southeast Asia conference, Hanoi, Vietnam. 2010.
  • Society for Conservation Biology annual meeting, Beijing, China. 2009.
  • First Regional SE Asia workshop on PES, Bangkok, Thailand. 2009.

Human well-being and Conservation: “Exploring the impacts on conservation policies on local livelihoods” and “Reconciling Poverty, Conservation and Governance”. Multiple presentations at:

  • International Conference for Conservation Biology, Auckland, New Zealand. 2011.
  • CIFOR workshop on Exploring the Forest-Poverty Link, University of East Anglia, UK. 2011.
  • Zoological Society of London and WCS Symposium, London, UK. 2009.
  • German Government (BMU/GTZ/KfW) seminar. Vilm, Germany. 2009.

 

tom